Data recovery entails the process of retrieving or salvaging the inaccessible, lost, damaged, corrupted or even formatted data from the secondary device, removable files or media when such data cannot be accessed in the usual way. The data lost in this case is usually retrieved from the external or internal hard disk drives (HDDs). It is also recovered from the CDs, DVDs, USB flash drives, magnetic tapes and other electronic devices.
Reasons Why Data Recovery is Required
Data recovery is mainly needed when there is physical damage to the storage devices.
It is also required when there is logical damage the file system which prevents the data from being mounted by the host operating system in what is called OS.
Scenarios for Data Recovery and How to Solve Them
The first situation for data recovery is when there is an operating system failure.This occurs when there is a malfunction of the storage device, its consistent failure, accidental damage or just deletion.To solve this, one needs to copy the critical files from the damaged media to another new drive through the use of a Live CD.
The second scenario involves when there is drive-level failure caused by the compromised file system, or even hard disk drive failure.This prevents data from being read from the media devices.In this scenario, one needs to repair the logical file system, partition table or even the master boot record.Using firmware software helps one to recover the lost data from the HDD (hard disk drive).
The last scenario involves the accidental deletion of the files from the storage medium.In this situation, the deleted files are usually not lost from the physical drive and thus can, later on, be made available for the data overwriting.
Phases for Data Recovery
Four phases help in the successful data recovery.However, they vary depending on the level and type of data corruption and the kind of recovery required.
This involves the first step of repairing the HDD. One needs to fix the drive i.e. HDD to run in some form.It can also be done in a state that allows the data to be read. Example; when the heads are bad, one needs to change them.
This involves imaging the already existing drive into a different new drive or even the disk image file.In this case when the HDD has failed, one needs to get the data off the drive. This should be the priority because the longer that faulty drive is, the more likely data loss is going to occur.
In this phase, one needs to create an image of the drive which helps in ensuring that there is the secondary copy of that data on a different device.This allows for the data safety when performing testing and recovery procedures without even harming the source.
It entails recovering the files logically, MBR, partition and the file system structure.After cloning the existing drive to the new one, it is necessary that one attempts retrieving the lost data.When the drive has logically failed, one needs to try using the clone which makes it easy to repair the partition table or the master boot record (MBR).This allows reading of the files system’s data structure and being able to retrieve the stored data.
This phase involves damaged file that was retrieved being repaired. Data damage, in this case, may usually occur when a given file has been written to a sector on the drive which is already damaged. To recover the corrupted files, one needs to use several software methods. One can also manually reconstruct the document by the use of the hex editor.
These phases help in recovering data that may have been lost.
A file can be lost or damaged due to logical damage or physical damage.One should understand the type of the damage before opting for a specific method or way of data recovery.Physical damage is usually due to the physical damage to the hard drives or even the mechanical failures to head crashes. In this case, repairing the lost part of the hard disk is the best way to recover the data. If it is due to logical damage, it means there may be overwritten data, lost or deleted data, and corrupt partition. To solve this, one needs to use phase 3 step to recover data.
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